Welcome to an in-depth exploration of family communication and child resilience. If you missed it, be sure to check out my article on family structure and stability. Building from that article, we now turn our attention to the heart of familial influence: the art of communication.
Here, we will explore various communication styles and how each uniquely influences a child’s ability to develop resilience. This understanding is crucial for laying a foundation of adaptability and emotional strength, essential for the well-being of our children.
Yes, this article is comprehensive and lengthy. However, every word is a stepping stone toward understanding the essential role of communication within the family unit. (Be sure to read to the end to access resources to help you get started on improving communication to promote children’s resilience!)
Open and Supportive Communication
Open communication within a family is a cornerstone for fostering resilience. This approach allows family members to express thoughts and feelings openly, seek support, and navigate challenges collaboratively.
Open and supportive communication involves expressing thoughts and feelings openly, listening actively, and offering support and understanding.
For example, consider a family where a teenager, Alex, is facing challenges at school with bullying. In a family that values open communication, Alex feels comfortable sharing his experiences with his parents, explaining his feelings of frustration and helplessness.
This comfort stems from the fact that his parents listen attentively, validate Alex’s feelings, and express understanding and empathy without immediately jumping to solutions or dismissing his concerns. The family sits together to discuss various ways to address the issue. Alex is encouraged to express his thoughts and fears, while the parents provide guidance and discuss potential steps. The family continues to check in with Alex about the situation, offering emotional support and adjusting their strategies as needed.
Notice what his parents do not do, which could hinder his resilience:
They do not immediately swoop in to solve the problem. They do not take over the situation by calling the school or confronting the bullies or their parents. This restraint is crucial because, otherwise, Alex may become (over) reliant on his parents to solve his challenges. Instead, they show confidence that Alex can handle difficult situations. In doing so, they promote his self-efficacy and allow him to develop his problem-solving skills.
Similarly, while his parents provide guidance, they do not impose their solutions or viewpoints on Alex. This approach respects his autonomy and encourages him to develop his own strategies for dealing with the bullying.
Further, his parents do not dismiss Alex’s feelings or reassure him with platitudes like “It will all be okay” or “Just ignore them.” While well-intentioned, such reassurances can undermine the validity of his feelings and experiences. By not doing this, they allow Alex to fully confront and process his emotions, which is essential for emotional resilience.
There is no indication that Alex’s parents are trying to shelter him from the reality of the bullying or its impacts. Overprotection can lead to a lack of exposure to real-world problems, which is necessary for developing coping mechanisms.
Additionally, his parents do not downplay or ignore the problem. Ignoring such significant issues can lead to a feeling of neglect and helplessness in children, hindering their ability to advocate for themselves and others. Further, they will consistently check in with him, rather than discussing it once and never revisiting the issue. This ongoing support is essential for resilience, as it shows that coping with problems is a process, not a one-time event.
They also avoid making snap judgments or immediate actions against the school or the other students involved. This approach helps in teaching Alex to assess situations thoughtfully and respond rather than react impulsively.
By avoiding these actions, Alex’s parents are effectively supporting his journey toward resilience. They teach him to face challenges, process emotions healthily, and develop problem-solving and coping skills that will benefit him throughout his life.
By using this style, parents promote resilience by creating an environment where children feel safe to share their problems, knowing they will be met with understanding and support. There is no fear of judgment, and children feel a sense of security and belonging. Further, they develop the confidence to face challenges and the understanding that seeking help is a strength, not a weakness. It fosters self-esteem, problem-solving skills, and emotional intelligence.
Directive vs. Guided Communication
Directive communication is characterized by giving orders or directions without seeking the child’s input.
For example, consider a child struggling with homework. A directive parent immediately takes over, completing the task for the child and showing them the answers instead of guiding them through it. This approach can undermine resilience by depriving the child of the opportunity to learn and solve problems independently. It may lead to a lack of self-efficacy and autonomy. Over time, children develop an over-reliance on others for solutions in a variety of situations.
In the context of guided communication, parents do not take over the task. Instead, they assist the child in understanding and completing their homework through a process of guidance and support while encouraging the child’s input and participation in decision-making.
In this example, the parent sits down with the child and asks, “What part of the homework is challenging for you?” Then, instead of pointing out the mistakes or providing solutions, the parent encourages the child to talk through what they understand. For instance, the parent might say, “Show me how you approached this problem.” The parent then asks open-ended, guiding questions that lead the child to figure out the solutions on their own. For example, “What happens if we try this method?”
If the child is still struggling, the parent might ask about how they can try to figure it out. Perhaps they can find a similar example in their textbook or a tutorial video online. In this way, parents guide children to resources rather than directly giving them the answer. After discussing a couple of problems, the parent encourages the child to try the next one independently. They might say something like, “I think you’ve got the hang of it now. Try the next one on your own, and I’ll be here if you have any questions.”
Through this process, we can capitalize on what they learned. Through their experience, they learn how mistakes helped them learn. And, that they have the resources to find different ways to support their learning.
Once the child completes their homework, the parent praises the child’s effort and perseverance, regardless of accuracy.
In this guided communication approach, the parent’s role is to facilitate the child’s learning process and discover solutions themselves. This helps them complete homework while also nurturing critical thinking, problem-solving skills, and self-confidence. All of which contribute to the child’s overall resilience and independence.
This approach fosters independence, critical thinking, and the ability to make decisions, key components of resilience.
Conflict-oriented communication within families is inevitable but how it’s handled can significantly impact the development of resilience in children. This type of communication can be either constructive or destructive, depending on the approach taken.
Constructive conflict resolution involves open, honest, and respectful discussion of disagreements. With this approach, we focus on understanding each other’s perspectives and finding a mutually agreeable solution. We emphasize problem-solving and collaboration rather than winning or losing. Having family meetings can be a great way to resolve conflicts constructively.
Suppose two siblings, Sarah and Mike, are arguing over who gets to use the family computer for their homework. Their parents intervene not by dictating a solution but by facilitating a discussion. They encourage each child to express their viewpoint and needs. Sarah explains she needs the computer to research a science project, while Mike needs it to write an essay.
Their parents help them brainstorm alternative solutions. They guide the siblings to consider each other’s needs and come to an agreement that meets everyone’s needs. The parents praise both for their willingness to negotiate and find a solution together.
This approach teaches conflict resolution skills, empathy, and the value of cooperation. It fosters resilience by showing children that conflicts can be resolved peacefully and constructively.
Destructive conflict resolution, however, involves blaming, criticism, yelling, or avoidance. The focus is on winning the argument and getting what one wants rather than understanding each other’s perspectives. Unfortunately, this approach only escalates the conflict and leaves the underlying issues unresolved.
In the same scenario, it can be destructive if the parents immediately take sides or impose a solution without listening to both children. For example, if they say, “Mike, stop being selfish and let your sister use the computer. You can do your essay later,” it dismisses Mike’s needs and escalates the conflict.
This approach can lead to feelings of resentment and unfairness. It teaches children that conflicts are resolved through power or favouritism, not through understanding and cooperation. This can hinder the development of resilience by not equipping children with the skills to manage and resolve conflicts constructively. This approach can lead to anxiety and a lack of coping mechanisms.
Conversely, a constructive approach can be an opportunity for teaching and reinforcing resilience in children. It equips them with essential life skills like empathy, negotiation, problem-solving, emotion regulation, and the ability to handle adversities constructively. Conversely, destructive handling of conflicts can impede the development of these crucial skills and adversely affect emotional well-being.
Restrained vs. Emotionally Expressive Communication
Emotionally expressive and restrained communication represent two distinct styles of conveying feelings and thoughts within a family.
Restrained communication is when family members are reserved in expressing their emotions. Emotions are kept private or are expressed in a more controlled and subdued manner. The focus is often on maintaining harmony and a calm environment.
For example, a restrained parent would not discuss their feelings of disappointment or worry openly after losing their job. They might maintain a composed demeanour, discussing the situation in factual terms. The children in a restrained family may learn to approach difficult situations with calmness and composure. However, they do not experience the full emotional impact of such events. Without this experience, it can limit their ability to process and express similar emotions in their own lives. Worse, they may believe they should never experience upset and believe something is wrong with them whenever they do.
Emotionally expressive communication is when family members openly express all emotions, including joy or anger and sadness. It’s marked by a willingness to share feelings freely and an environment where emotional expression is encouraged and accepted.
In an emotionally expressive family, facing the same job loss situation, the parents might openly discuss their feelings of disappointment and worry with the family. They express their emotions candidly, allowing children to see and understand the range of emotions adults experience. The children learn that it is normal to have strong feelings about life events. They also observe how the parent manages these feelings, such as seeking support or engaging in problem-solving.
A constrained approach can teach children self-control and consideration for others’ emotional states. However, it might hinder emotional development when they do not know how to recognize and express emotions. This limits their emotional awareness and empathy, as well as their ability to cope with their own and other’s emotions.
The emotionally expressive home fosters emotional awareness and literacy in children. They learn to recognize, label, and understand a range of emotions, which is crucial for emotional intelligence. However, if not balanced with emotional regulation, it could lead to an overwhelming emotional climate in the home.
The key is to find a balance that allows for healthy emotional expression and understanding while also teaching emotional regulation and respect for others’ emotional states. This balance is essential in fostering emotional resilience and intelligence in children.
Affirmative and Encouraging Communication
Affirmative and encouraging communication is a positive approach that focuses on supporting and motivating children through positive reinforcement and encouragement. It’s about recognizing their efforts, strengths, and potential, rather than outcomes or shortcomings.
For example, let’s say 10-year-old Emma recently started piano lessons. She’s enthusiastic but faces challenges in mastering new pieces, often feeling discouraged.
First, parents will recognize effort over perfection. After a practice session where Emma struggles with a new piece, her father says, “I noticed how hard you worked on that difficult part. It’s great to see you putting in so much effort.”
Parents also give specific praise. Instead of general comments like “Good job,” her mother points out specific aspects, “The way you played the melody in the second line was beautiful. I can tell you’ve been practicing that part.”
Parents also focus on encouragement after setbacks. When Emma expresses frustration about hitting the wrong notes, her parents might say, “Mistakes are important for learning. Remember what happened when you missed this note? You learned it and have never missed it again. Every time you try, you get better. Could you play that other song at first? And what about now?” This conversation goes into highlighting progress where parents can help children remember how far they have come.
Emma’s parents can offer support if needed. They might ask, “What can we do to help you with your practice?” to show their willingness to support her in her learning process.
They will then encourage perseverance. Emma’s mother might share a personal story, “When I was learning to paint, I found some techniques hard, but with practice, I got better. I see the same determination in you with your piano playing.”
By using affirmative and encouraging communication, parents create a supportive environment that focuses on effort and improvement, rather than outcome. This approach boosts children’s self-esteem and confidence. It reinforces persistence where effort is valued, nurturing a growth mindset. Children learn to appreciate the value of effort and perseverance, which promotes motivation for continued learning and growth.
Consistent and Reliable Communication
Parents who use consistent and reliable communication set clear rules and consistently enforce them. They offer a meaningful rationale and explain their decisions calmly and rationally.
For example, parents decide to establish a rule about no screen time on weekdays with their two children. First, they set clear expectations. They clearly explain the rules to their children, outline what is expected, and why these rules are in place.
Regardless of the circumstances, the parents enforce these rules consistently. If one child asks to watch TV on a Wednesday because they have no homework, the parents gently but firmly remind them of the rule. When the children ask questions or seek clarification about the rules, the parents provide reliable responses: clear and consistent answers. They avoid giving mixed messages that could create confusion.
Importantly, parents also model expected behaviours. They adhere to the rules they’ve set and demonstrate the importance of these rules through their actions.
Sometimes a rule needs to be adjusted, like a special occasion allowing for some weekday screen time. Adjustments are discussed openly with the children, explaining the reasons for the exception.
Inconsistent communication can lead to confusion and insecurity, impeding the development of resilience. Consistency in our messages, rules, and expectations provides a reliable framework within which children can operate with confidence. Being consistent fosters a sense of security and predictability, essential for resilience. It helps children understand boundaries and expectations, contributing to a stable environment.
As you can see, each communication style within a family carries profound implications for a child’s development of resilience. In families where open, empathetic, and respectful communication is encouraged, children learn to express their emotions healthily, seek support when needed, and develop strong social and emotional skills. Such an environment fosters a sense of security and belonging, crucial components in the resilience-building process.
On the other hand, communication patterns characterized by criticism, avoidance, or misunderstanding can hinder the development of resilience, leaving children ill-equipped to handle stress and adversity.
Through their communication styles, families can create an environment conducive to the development of resilient children. After all, they will have the communication skills and emotional intelligence necessary to cope with any life stressors and achieve success in all areas of life.
Thank you for staying to the end and learning more about family communication and child Resilience. Your dedication to understanding the nuances of family communication is a testament to your commitment to nurturing resilience in children.
Now, equipped with this knowledge, I invite you to put what you learned into action.
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